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Italian sandwich

Italian sandwich


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Directions for use: packed and served on a bench surrounded by green grass and shady trees.

  • For two satisfying sandwiches:
  • 2 ciabatta with olives
  • 4-5 lettuce leaves (you can use arugula instead of lettuce)
  • 4 large slices of salami
  • 8 slices of mozzarella
  • 1 baked capsicum pepper
  • garlic paste (or crushed garlic mixed with a little olive oil)

Servings: 2

Preparation time: less than 15 minutes

RECIPE PREPARATION Italian sandwich:

Each ciabatta is grown, greased with garlic paste. In each put two salad leaves, four slices of mozzarella, two slices of salami and half a pepper. To make them easier to eat, sandwiches can be wrapped in baking paper. Good appetite!

Note: Inspired by GoodFood.


Bignè - recipe

For about 30 pieces I used the following quantities.

Ingredient:

  • 200 ml of water
  • 200 g of white flour
  • 4 eggs
  • 120 g butter
  • A pinch of salt

Method of preparation: Carefully measure the quantities before cooking begins. On the fire, put water, a pinch of salt and butter in a saucepan and mix gently. When it starts to boil, add the flour in the rain, stirring constantly. Make sure they are not lumpy. Turn off the heat and add one egg at a time, stirring well, until the egg is completely absorbed. Then add the next egg, etc. After you have laid all the eggs, you will have a soft paste. The oven must be heated to 190 degrees C. In a baking tray, place the paste the size of a walnut. You can use either wet hands or a measuring spoon for ice cream that you wet before each use. A cream pos is another option. For 15 minutes the dough should stand at 190 degrees C, and then for another 15 minutes at 180 degrees C. The toothpick test is useful to check if they have really baked. When cool, cut and fill with cream or other creams. Good appetite!


Menu for a tasty picnic

Organizing a picnic does not necessarily mean a lot of high-calorie food, but rather healthy, light and filling.

Gustos.ro offers you some ideas for a successful picnic and offers you some quick recipes that will help you.

Sandwiches
they are the easiest to prepare, which is why they are not to be ignored. All you need is toast, cheese or cheese, salad, tomatoes or cucumbers, mayonnaise, mustard and the sandwich is ready. If you want to eat as healthy as possible, you can prepare a sandwich of avocado, cucumber, tomato, onion. This type of sandwich is ideal if you like a vegetarian diet.

Salads they are also in great demand when it comes to picnics, so they can't go unnoticed. You can choose a potato salad with mayonnaise and onions, a potato salad with egg, mustard and olives or a personalized salad in which to put the ingredients you like best. Also refreshing and delicious can be a salad with tomatoes, cheese, olives, onions, celery and mushrooms. At the end, don't forget to season with a little olive oil, salt and pepper.

If vegetable dishes are not to your liking, prepare light dishes such as: chicken meatballs with rosemary and thyme, fish meatballs with basil, pumpkin meatballs with cheese and dill, cold pasta.

The long-awaited moment of the day is definitely serving dessert. If you feel that you are tired of the prepared dishes, choose only some fruits for dessert. But, at the end of a meal based, especially on vegetables, you can pamper yourself with a homemade cake or with a Negro. Also, you can opt for purchased sweets, either cookies, cereal bars or chocolate. A healthy and at the same time tasty dessert you could make yourself by mixing whole grains with candied seeds and fruits (raisins, plums).

After such a dessert, you will surely be thirsty. In this case, you can choose water, natural fruit juices or a lemonade. If you also have a refrigerator in which to keep them cold, it's even better.

In the end, you can be sure that your picnic enjoyed an honorable menu! Have fun!


Knife chefs 2019, a new season with delicious recipes

Season 7 Chefs with knives promises to perfectly spice up the viewers' evenings starting on September 9th and 10th, from 20.00, on Antena 1. The most beloved culinary show in Romania will start, in short, the invisible judgments, where the show's fans, c & acirct and the three chefs - Florin Dumitrescu, Sorin Bontea and Cătălin Scărlătescu - will have some surprises from the competitors who will try to prove their talent with unique culinary dishes.


If you eat celery for a week, here are the CHANGES that take place in the body

Celery, that crunchy and extremely flavorful vegetable, is one of the most underrated vegetables in the supermarket. Although many people do not have a very good opinion about it, this vegetable is actually loaded with significant amounts of vitamins (A, B, C, K), calcium, magnesium and potassium.

In fact, phytonutrients are the fundamental part of celery. These chemicals are used by plants to keep harmful insects and sunlight at a distance, but their effects on humans are much more impressive.

Phytonutrients have qualities anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, can improve the immune system and intracellular communication and repair DNA damage due to the influence of toxins. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, regular phytonutrient consumption has had measurable results as an effective strategy in fighting cancer and heart disease.

These long-term health benefits are impressive. But is there any short-term benefit that comes with celery consumption?

The benefits of celery consumption in the short and medium term

According to PositiveMED.com, the studies found the following benefits after people undergoing tests included a portion of celery in their daily diet for only a week:

Photo: Pinterest.com

Weakening. Celery has a low calorie content (about 10-15 calories), and its fiber content of 1.6 grams per serving can stop unhealthy cravings.

Hydration. Because celery has 95% water, it is a great way to prevent dehydration when you need a frequent snack throughout the day.

Anti-inflammatory. If you are at risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer, adding celery to your diet can help prevent chronic inflammation (which is a condition that is closely linked to these diseases).

Photo: Pinterest.com

It can stop heartburn and gastric acid. Celery has been recommended as a solution for these conditions due to its low acidity.

Improves cholesterol levels and blood pressure. A study by the University of Chicago found that a chemical found in celery called phthalide reduced cholesterol by 7% and blood pressure by 18%.

Improves digestion. People who suffer from stomach problems and constipation know the importance of including fiber in their diet. The content of celery fibers can help maintain the health of the intestines, among other things.

It can reduce the risk of diseases caused by the stomach lining. Sstudies have found that antioxidants in celery can reduce gastric ulcers and the risk of gastritis.

Photo: Pinterest.com

Aphrodisiac. Celery contains a high level of male pheromones, androstenone and androstenol. Some people believe that eating celery can increase the perceived level of attractiveness of men who consume it.

It can keep your eyes healthy. Vitamin A, one of the main vitamins found in celery, is known as a vitamin capable of protecting the cornea. This vitamin is also effective in treating dry eyes.

It has a calming effect. Celery magnesium is known to have a relaxing effect on the nervous system. In fact, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, once wrote that celery should be used to calm nerves and to fall asleep. It has also been used historically to treat nervous system disorders.

It can regulate the body's alkaline balance. Due to its low acidity, celery can help stabilize the PH levels in the body and stop the accumulation of acid.

Anti-mosquitoes. You've probably heard your grandmother talk about celery as a good food that repel unbearable mosquitoes. Studies have shown that rubbed celery extract on the skin works effectively as a mosquito repellent.

Photo: Pinterest.com

Treatment for urinary tract infections. In some places around the world, celery is a common and effective way to treat urinary tract infections. Celery has a diuretic effect, so it helps you eliminate water without losing too much potassium.

It can stimulate male fertility. In combination with vitamin E, celery appears to increase sperm count. Aldosterone, the male hormone we discussed earlier as having aphrodisiac properties, also creates a healthy environment for sperm to mature.

Now that you know that celery is more than just a snack full of water and some fiber, try including it in your daily diet! You will be surprised by the results recorded in just one week.


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In case you didn't know, there is a World Grill Championship. And the place where it is held every year is, you guessed it, in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Hence the celebrity of this sauce. Not to be confused with the classic BBQ sauce (Kansas-City style) which is much more consistent, almost like a jam.

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Italian-flavored, tasty and healthy recipes

Preheat the oven to 180 degrees Celsius. Mix the tomatoes, basil, garlic, salt, pepper, olive oil and balsamic vinegar in a bowl.

Place the slices of baguette on a tray covered with baking paper, then cover each slice with the previously prepared tomato mixture.

Put the tray in the oven and let it cook for about 10 minutes. Serve the hot bruschettas as soon as they are taken out of the oven.

Spaghetti with mussels and garlic

Ingredients for 6 servings:

  • & frac12 kg of spaghetti from wholemeal flour
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • & frac12 teaspoon chopped red pepper
  • & frac14 cup of extra virgin olive oil
  • 4 cloves garlic, chopped
  • & frac12 teaspoon chopped pepper
  • around 24 mussels
  • & frac14 cup of water
  • & frac14 cup finely chopped parsley

Method of preparation:

Put on the fire a pan full of water, in which we dissolve a little salt. Boil the spaghetti in wholemeal al dente flour, then drain.

Meanwhile, heat the olive oil in a pan. Saute the chopped garlic, then add the red pepper. After 1-2 minutes, add the mussels and water, cover the pan and leave on the fire for about 5-8 minutes.

Then add the boiled spaghetti, but also the parsley and pepper. Leave for another 1 minute, then turn off the heat.

Serve the spaghetti as soon as you take it off the heat.

Baked eggplant with mozzarella and parmesan

Ingredients for 4 servings:

  • & frac14 cup of olive oil + 2 more tablespoons
  • 4 cloves garlic, chopped
  • 1 can of tomato sauce
  • 1 teaspoon of Italian herbs
  • & frac12 teaspoon of salt
  • 1 large eggplant, cut into slices
  • 3 dogs of shallow mozzarella
  • & frac12 can of ground parmesan

Method of preparation:

Preheat the oven to 180 degrees Celsius.

Heat the olive oil over medium heat, then sauté the minced garlic for about 30 seconds. Add the tomato sauce, the Italian herbs, but also the salt and let it cook for about 20 minutes, then turn off the heat.

Meanwhile, the eggplant slices are spread in a tray covered with baking paper, in a single layer. Grease with olive oil, then season with salt and pepper on both sides.

Put the tray in the oven and let the eggplant bake for about 4-5 minutes, after which they will turn on the other side for 4-5 minutes. Remove the tray from the oven.

In a round heat-resistant dish, yena type, place a layer of previously cooked tomato sauce, which will then be covered with a layer of ripe eggplant slices. On top, put a layer of mozzarella and sprinkle a little Parmesan. Repeat the operation until the ingredients are finished. The last layer will be mozzarella and parmesan.

Put the yena pot in the oven and leave it for about 20-25 minutes. Remove the dish from the oven, let the preparation cool for 5 minutes, then serve.

At the same time, this preparation can be consumed cold, directly from the refrigerator.

Vegetarian lasagna with mushrooms and zucchini

Ingredients for 12 servings:

  • & frac12 kg of pumpkin
  • & frac12 kg of sliced ​​mushrooms
  • 1 large onion, chopped
  • 3 cloves garlic, chopped
  • 1 tablespoon olive oil
  • 1 cup chopped tomatoes
  • 6 tablespoons finely chopped parsley
  • 2 tablespoons sugar
  • & frac12 teaspoon of salt
  • & frac14 teaspoon of pepper
  • 3 eggs
  • 2 mozzarella dogs
  • 1 & frac12 cane ricotta cheese
  • 180 g of low-fat cream cheese
  • & frac12 can of ground parmesan
  • wholemeal lasagna sheets
  • 2 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese

Method of preparation:

Peel a squash, grate it and squeeze the juice.

In a large skillet, sauté the slices of pumpkin, mushrooms, onion and garlic until soft. Then add the tomatoes, 3 tablespoons of parsley, sugar, salt and 1/8 teaspoon of pepper. After this mixture starts to boil, leave it on low heat and cook for another 12-15 minutes.

In a bowl, mix mozzarella, eggs, ricotta, cream cheese, grated Parmesan cheese, remaining parsley, salt and pepper.

Cover a tray with a thin layer of oil, then place the cup of tomato sauce in the tray. Add a layer of lasagna sheets, then one of the previously prepared pumpkin and mushroom mixture. Continue until the ingredients are finished & ndash the last layer will be sauce.

Put the tray in the oven and the lasagna is cooked at 180 degrees for at least 35 minutes. Remove the tray, add grated Parmesan cheese on top, but also the chopped zucchini at the beginning, then leave it in the oven for another 15 minutes.

Remove the pan from the oven, let the lasagna cool for at least 15 minutes, then cut and serve.


Contents

Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, the cuisine can claim traceable roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Food and culture were very important at that time as we can see from the cookbook (Apicius) which dates to the first century BC. [14] Through the centuries, neighboring regions, conquerors, high-profile chefs, political upheaval, and the discovery of the New World have influenced its development. Italian cuisine started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire when different cities began to separate and form their own traditions. Many different types of bread and pasta were made, and there was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation.

The country was then split for a long time and influenced by surrounding countries such as Spain, France and Central Europe. This and the trade or the location on the Silk Road with its routes to Asia influenced the local development of special dishes. Due to the climatic conditions and the different proximity to the sea, different basic foods and spices were available from region to region. Regional cuisine is represented by some of the major cities in Italy. For example, Milan (north of Italy) is known for risottos, Trieste (northeast of Italy) is known for multicultural food, Bologna (the central / middle of the country) is known for its tortellini, and Naples (the south) is famous for its pizzas. [15] A good example is the well-known spaghetti where it is believed that they spread across Africa to Sicily and then on to Naples. [16] [17]

Antiquity Edit

The first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BC. He wrote a poem that spoke of using "top quality and seasonal" ingredients. He said that flavors should not be masked by spices, herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish. [18]

Simplicity was abandoned and replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the Roman Empire developed. By the time Of re coquinaria was published in the 1st century AD, it contained 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices and herbs. The Romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheesemakers. The Romans reared goats for butchering, and grew artichokes and leeks. [18]

Middle Ages Edit

With culinary traditions from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the first real Italian cuisine. [ citation needed ] Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century, introducing spinach, almonds, and rice. [19] During the 12th century, a Norman king surveyed Sicily and saw people making long strings made from flour and water called Atriy, which eventually became Ministers, a term still used for spaghetti in southern Italy. [20] Normans also introduced the casserole, salt cod (baccalà), and stockfish, all of which remain popular. [21]

Food preservation was either chemical or physical, as refrigeration did not exist. Meats and fish were smoked, dried, or kept on ice. Brine and salt were used to pickle items such as herring, and to cure pork. Root vegetables were preserved in brine after they had been parboiled. Other means of preservation included oil, vinegar, or immersing meat in congealed, rendered fat. For preserving fruits, liquor, honey, and sugar were used. [22]

The northern Italian regions show a mix of Germanic and Roman culture while the south reflects Arab [19] influence, as much Mediterranean cuisine was spread by Arab trade. [23] The oldest Italian book on cuisine is the 13th century Free of coquina written in Naples. Dishes include "Roman-style" cabbage (ad usum romanorum), ad usum campaign which were "small leaves" prepared in the "Campanian manner", a bean dish from the Marca di Trevisio, a torch, compositum londardicum which are similar to dishes prepared today. Two other books from the 14th century include recipes for Roman pastel, Lasagna pie, and call for the use of salt from Sardinia or Chioggia. [24]

In the 15th century, Maestro Martino was chef to the Patriarch of Aquileia at the Vatican. His Coquinaria art book describes a more refined and elegant cuisine. His book contains a recipe for Maccaroni Siciliani, made by wrapping dough around a thin iron rod to dry in the sun. The macaroni was cooked in capon stock flavored with saffron, displaying Persian influences. Of particular note is Martino's avoidance of excessive spices in favor of fresh herbs. [21] The Roman recipes include couples (air-dried salami) and cabbage dishes. His Florentine dishes include eggs with Bolognese cake, Sienese cake and Genoese recipes such as peppery (sweets), macaroni, squash, mushrooms, and spinach pie with onions. [25]

Martino's text was included in a 1475 book by Bartolomeo Platina printed in Venice entitled Of honest voluptuousness and valetudine ("On Honest Pleasure and Good Health"). Platina puts Martino's "Libro" in regional context, writing about perch from Lake Maggiore, sardines from Lake Garda, grayling from Adda, hens from Padua, olives from Bologna and Piceno, turbot from Ravenna, rudd from Lake Trasimeno, carrots from Viterbo, bass from the Tiber, roviglioni and shad from Lake Albano, snails from Rieti, figs from Tuscolo, grapes from Narni, oil from Cassino, oranges from Naples and eels from Campania. Grains from Lombardy and Campania are mentioned as is honey from Sicily and Taranto. Wine from the Ligurian coast, Greco from Tuscany and San Severino, and Trebbiano from Tuscany and Piceno are also mentioned in the book. [26]

Early modern era Edit

The courts of Florence, Rome, Venice, and Ferrara were central to the cuisine. Cristoforo di Messisbugo, steward to Ippolito d'Este, published Banquets Food Compositions in 1549. Messisbugo gives recipes for pies and tarts (containing 124 recipes with various fillings). The work emphasizes the use of Eastern spices and sugar. [27]

In 1570, Bartolomeo Scappi, personal chef to Pope Pius V, wrote his Opera in five volumes, giving a comprehensive view of Italian cooking of that period. It contains over 1,000 recipes, with information on banquets including displays and menus as well as illustrations of kitchen and table utensils. This book differs from most books written for the royal courts in its preference for domestic animals and courtyard birds rather than game.

Recipes include lesser cuts of meats such as tongue, head, and shoulder. The third volume has recipes for fish in Lent. These fish recipes are simple, including poaching, broiling, grilling, and frying after marination.

Particular attention is given to seasons and places where fish should be caught. The final volume includes pies, tarts, fritters, and a recipe for a sweet Neapolitan pizza (not the current savory version, as tomatoes had not yet been introduced to Italy). However, such items from the New World as corn (maize) and turkey are included. [28]

In the first decade of the 17th century, Giacomo Castelvetro wrote Brief Tale of All the Roots of All Herbs and All Fruits (A Brief Account of All Roots, Herbs, and Fruit), translated into English by Gillian Riley. Originally from Modena, Castelvetro moved to England because he was a Protestant. The book lists Italian vegetables and fruits along with their preparation. He featured vegetables as a central part of the meal, not just as accompaniments. [28] Castelvetro favored simmering vegetables in salted water and serving them warm or cold with olive oil, salt, fresh ground pepper, lemon juice, verjus, or orange juice. He also suggested roasting vegetables wrapped in damp paper over charcoal or embers with a drizzle of olive oil. Castelvetro's book is separated into seasons with hop shoots in the spring and truffles in the winter, detailing the use of pigs in the search for truffles. [28]

In 1662, Bartolomeo Stefani, chef to the Duchy of Mantua, published The Art of Well Cooking (English: 'The Art of Well Cooking'). He was the first to offer a section on ordinary food ("ordinary food"). The book described a banquet given by Duke Charles for Queen Christina of Sweden, with details of the food and table settings for each guest, including a knife, fork, spoon, glass, a plate (instead of the bowls more often used), and a napkin. [29]

Other books from this time, such as Galatheo by Giovanni della Casa, tell how kicks ("waiters") should manage themselves while serving their guests. Waiters should not scratch their heads or other parts of themselves, or spit, sniff, cough or sneeze while serving diners. The book also told diners not to use their fingers while eating and not to wipe sweat with their napkin. [29]

Modern era Edit

At the beginning of the 18th century, Italian culinary books began to emphasize the regionalism of Italian cuisine rather than French cuisine. Books written then were no longer addressed to professional chefs but to bourgeois housewives. [30] Periodicals in booklet form such as The Cremonese cook (The Cook of Cremona) in 1794 give a sequence of ingredients according to season along with chapters on meat, fish, and vegetables. As the century progressed these books increased in size, popularity, and frequency. [31]

In the 18th century, medical texts warned peasants against eating refined foods as it was believed that these were poor for their digestion and their bodies required heavy meals. It was believed by some that peasants ate poorly because they preferred eating poorly. However, many peasants had to eat rotten food and moldy bread because that was all they could afford. [32]

In 1779, Antonio Nebbia from Macerata in the Marche region, wrote The Macerata Chef (The Cook of Macerata). Nebbia addressed the importance of local vegetables and pasta, rice, and gnocchi. For stock, he preferred vegetables and chicken over other meats.

In 1773, the Neapolitan Vincenzo Corrado's Il Cuoco Galante (The Courteous Cook) gave particular emphasis to vitto pitagorico (vegetarian food). "Pythagorean food consists of fresh herbs, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds and all that is produced in the earth for our nourishment. It is so called because Pythagoras, as is well known, only used such produce. There is no doubt that this kind of food appears to be more natural to man, and the use of meat is noxious." This book was the first to give the tomato a central role with thirteen recipes.

Zuppa alli pomidoro in Corrado's book is a dish similar to today's Tuscan pappa al pomodoro. Corrado's 1798 edition introduced a "Treatise on the Potato" after the French Antoine-Augustin Parmentier's successful promotion of the tuber. [34] In 1790, Francesco Leonardi in his book L'Apicio moderno ("Modern Apicius") sketches a history of the Italian Cuisine from the Roman Age and gives as first a recipe of a tomato-based sauce. [35]

In the 19th century, Giovanni Vialardi, chef to King Victor Emmanuel, wrote A Treatise of Modern Cookery and Patisserie with recipes "suitable for a modest household". Many of his recipes are for regional dishes from Turin including twelve for potatoes such as Genoese Cappon Magro. In 1829, Il Nuovo Cuoco Milanese Economico by Giovanni Felice Luraschi featured Milanese dishes such as kidney with anchovies and lemon and gnocchi alla Romana. Gian Battista and Giovanni Ratto's La Cucina Genovese in 1871 addressed the cuisine of Liguria. This book contained the first recipe for pesto. La Cucina Teorico-Pratica written by Ippolito Cavalcanti described the first recipe for pasta with tomatoes. [36]

La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene (The Science of Cooking and the Art of Eating Well), by Pellegrino Artusi, first published in 1891, is widely regarded as the canon of classic modern Italian cuisine, and it is still in print. Its recipes predominantly originate from Romagna and Tuscany, where he lived.

Italian cuisine has a great variety of different ingredients which are commonly used, ranging from fruits, vegetables, sauces, meats, etc. In the North of Italy, fish (such as cod, or baccalà), potatoes, rice, corn (maize), sausages, pork, and different types of cheeses are the most common ingredients. Pasta dishes with use of tomato are spread in all of Italy. [37] [38] Italians like their ingredients fresh and subtly seasoned and spiced. [39]

In Northern Italy though there are many kinds of stuffed pasta, polenta and risotto are equally popular if not more so. [40] Ligurian ingredients include several types of fish and seafood dishes. Basil (found in pesto), nuts, and olive oil are very common. In Emilia-Romagna, common ingredients include ham (prosciutto), sausage (cotechino), different sorts of salami, truffles, grana, Parmigiano-Reggiano, and tomatoes (Bolognese sauce or ragù).

Traditional Central Italian cuisine uses ingredients such as tomatoes, all kinds of meat, fish, and pecorino cheese. In Tuscany, pasta (especially pappardelle) is traditionally served with meat sauce (including game meat). In Southern Italy, tomatoes (fresh or cooked into tomato sauce), peppers, olives and olive oil, garlic, artichokes, oranges, ricotta cheese, eggplants, zucchini, certain types of fish (anchovies, sardines and tuna), and capers are important components to the local cuisine.

Italian cuisine is also well known (and well regarded) for its use of a diverse variety of pasta. Pasta include noodles in various lengths, widths, and shapes. Most pastas may be distinguished by the shapes for which they are named—penne, maccheroni, spaghetti, linguine, fusilli, lasagne, and many more varieties that are filled with other ingredients like ravioli and tortellini.

The word pasta is also used to refer to dishes in which pasta products are a primary ingredient. It is usually served with sauce. There are hundreds of different shapes of pasta with at least locally recognized names.

Examples include spaghetti (thin rods), rigatoni (tubes or cylinders), fusilli (swirls), and lasagne (sheets). Dumplings, like gnocchi (made with potatoes or pumpkin) and noodles like spätzle, are sometimes considered pasta. They are both traditional in parts of Italy.

Pasta is categorized in two basic styles: dried and fresh. Dried pasta made without eggs can be stored for up to two years under ideal conditions, while fresh pasta will keep for a couple of days in the refrigerator. Pasta is generally cooked by boiling. Under Italian law, dry pasta (pasta secca) can only be made from durum wheat flour or durum wheat semolina, and is more commonly used in Southern Italy compared to their Northern counterparts, who traditionally prefer the fresh egg variety.

Durum flour and durum semolina have a yellow tinge in color. Italian pasta is traditionally cooked al dente (Italian: firm to the bite, meaning not too soft). Outside Italy, dry pasta is frequently made from other types of flour, but this yields a softer product. There are many types of wheat flour with varying gluten and protein levels depending on the variety of grain used.

Particular varieties of pasta may also use other grains and milling methods to make the flour, as specified by law. Some pasta varieties, such as pizzoccheri, are made from buckwheat flour. Fresh pasta may include eggs (pasta all'uovo "egg pasta"). Whole wheat pasta has become increasingly popular because of its supposed health benefits over pasta made from refined flour.

Each area has its own specialties, primarily at a regional level, but also at the provincial level. The differences can come from a bordering country (such as France or Austria), whether a region is close to the sea or the mountains, and economics. [42] Italian cuisine is also seasonal with priority placed on the use of fresh produce. [43] [44]

Abruzzo and Molise Edit

Pasta, meat, and vegetables are central to the cuisine of Abruzzo and Molise. Chili peppers (peperoncini) are typical of Abruzzo, where they are called diavoletti ("little devils") for their spicy heat. Due to the long history of shepherding in Abruzzo and Molise, lamb dishes are common. Lamb is often paired with pasta. [45] Mushrooms (usually wild mushrooms), rosemary, and garlic are also extensively used in Abruzzese cuisine.

Best-known is the extra virgin olive oil produced in the local farms on the hills of the region, marked by the quality level DOP and considered one of the best in the country. [46] Renowned wines like Montepulciano DOCG and Trebbiano d'Abruzzo DOC are considered amongst the world's finest wines. [47] In 2012 a bottle of Trebbiano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane ranked #1 in the top 50 Italian wine award. [48] Centerbe ("Hundred Herbs") is a strong (72% alcohol), spicy herbal liqueur drunk by the locals. Another liqueur is genziana, a soft distillate of gentian roots.

The best-known dish from Abruzzo is arrosticini, little pieces of castrated lamb on a wooden stick and cooked on coals. The chitarra (literally "guitar") is a fine stringed tool that pasta dough is pressed through for cutting. In the province of Teramo, famous local dishes include the virtù soup (made with legumes, vegetables, and pork meat), the timballo (pasta sheets filled with meat, vegetables or rice), and the mazzarelle (lamb intestines filled with garlic, marjoram, lettuce, and various spices). The popularity of saffron, grown in the province of L'Aquila, has waned in recent years. [45] The most famous dish of Molise is cavatelli, a long shaped, handmade maccheroni-type pasta made of flour, semolina, and water, often served with meat sauce, broccoli, or mushrooms. Pizzelle cookies are a common dessert, especially around Christmas.

Apulia Edit

Apulia is a massive food producer: major production includes wheat, tomatoes, zucchini, broccoli, bell peppers, potatoes, spinach, eggplants, cauliflower, fennel, endive, chickpeas, lentils, beans, and cheese (like the traditional caciocavallo cheese). Apulia is also the largest producer of olive oil in Italy. The sea offers abundant fish and seafood that are extensively used in the regional cuisine, especially oysters, and mussels.

Goat and lamb are occasionally used. [49] The region is known for pasta made from durum wheat and traditional pasta dishes featuring orecchiette-type pasta, often served with tomato sauce, potatoes, mussels, or broccoli rabe. Pasta with cherry tomatoes and arugula is also popular. [50]

Regional desserts include zeppola, doughnuts usually topped with powdered sugar and filled with custard, jelly, cannoli-style pastry cream, or a butter-and-honey mixture. For Christmas, Apulians make a very traditional rose-shaped pastry called cartellate. These are fried and dipped in vin cotto, which is either a wine or fig juice reduction.

Basilicata Edit

The cuisine of Basilicata is mostly based on inexpensive ingredients and deeply anchored in rural traditions.

Pork is an integral part of the regional cuisine, often made into sausages or roasted on a spit. Famous dry sausages from the region are lucanica and soppressata. Wild boar, mutton, and lamb are also popular. Pasta sauces are generally based on meats or vegetables. The region produces cheeses like Pecorino di Filiano, Canestrato di Moliterno, Pallone di Gravina, and Paddraccio and olive oils like the Vulture. [51]

The peperone crusco, (or crusco pepper) is a staple of the local cuisine, much to be defined "The red gold of Basilicata". [52] It is consumed as a snack or as a main ingredient for several regional recipes. [53]

Among the traditional dishes are pasta con i peperoni cruschi, pasta served with dried crunchy pepper, bread crumbs and grated cheese [54] lagane e ceci, also known as piatto del brigante (brigand's dish), pasta prepared with chick peas and peeled tomatoes [55] tumacë me tulë, tagliatelle-dish of Arbëreshe culture rafanata, a type of omelette with horseradish ciaudedda, a vegetable stew with artichokes, potatoes, broad beans, and pancetta [56] and the baccalà alla lucana, one of the few recipes made with fish. Desserts include taralli dolci, made with sugar glaze and scented with anise and calzoncelli, fried pastries filled with a cream of chestnuts and chocolate.

The most famous wine of the region is the Aglianico del Vulture, others include Matera, Terre dell'Alta Val d'Agri and Grottino di Roccanova. [57]

Basilicata is also known for its mineral waters which are sold widely in Italy. The springs are mostly located in the volcanic basin of the Vulture area. [58]

Calabria Edit

In Calabria, a history of French rule under the House of Anjou and Napoleon, along with Spanish influences, affected the language and culinary skills as seen in the naming of things such as cake, gatò, from the French gateau. Seafood includes swordfish, shrimp, lobster, sea urchin, and squid. Macaroni-type pasta is widely used in regional dishes, often served with goat, beef, or pork sauce and salty ricotta. [59]

Main courses include frìttuli (prepared by boiling pork rind, meat, and trimmings in pork fat), different varieties of spicy sausages (like Nduja and Capicola), goat, and land snails. Melon and watermelon are traditionally served in a chilled fruit salad or wrapped in ham. [60] Calabrian wines include Greco di Bianco, Bivongi, Cirò, Dominici, Lamezia, Melissa, Pollino, Sant'Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto, San Vito di Luzzi, Savuto, Scavigna, and Verbicaro.

Calabrese pizza has a Neapolitan-based structure with fresh tomato sauce and a cheese base, but is unique because of its spicy flavor. Some of the ingredients included in a Calabrese pizza are thinly sliced hot soppressata, hot capicola, hot peppers, and fresh mozzarella.

Campania Edit

Campania extensively produces tomatoes, peppers, spring onions, potatoes, artichokes, fennel, lemons, and oranges which all take on the flavor of volcanic soil. The Gulf of Naples offers fish and seafood. Campania is one of the largest producers and consumers of pasta in Italy, especially spaghetti. In the regional cuisine, pasta is prepared in various styles that can feature tomato sauce, cheese, clams, and shellfish. [61]

Spaghetti alla puttanesca is a popular dish made with olives, tomatoes, anchovies, capers, chili peppers, and garlic. The region is well-known also for its mozzarella production (especially from the milk of water buffalo) that's used in a variety of dishes, including parmigiana (shallow fried eggplant slices layered with cheese and tomato sauce, then baked). Desserts include struffoli (deep fried balls of dough), ricotta-based pastiera and sfogliatelle, and rum-dipped babà. [61]

Originating in Neapolitan cuisine, pizza has become popular in many different parts of the world. [62] Pizza is an oven-baked, flat, disc-shaped bread typically topped with a tomato sauce, cheese (usually mozzarella), and various toppings depending on the culture. Since the original pizza, several other types of pizzas have evolved.

Since Naples was the capital of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, its cuisine took much from the culinary traditions of all the Campania region, reaching a balance between dishes based on rural ingredients (pasta, vegetables, cheese) and seafood dishes (fish, crustaceans, mollusks). A vast variety of recipes is influenced by the local aristocratic cuisine, like timballo and Sartù di riso, pasta or rice dishes with very elaborate preparation, while the dishes coming from the popular traditions contain inexpensive but nutritionally healthy ingredients, like pasta with beans and other pasta dishes with vegetables.

Emilia-Romagna Edit

Emilia-Romagna is especially known for its egg and filled pasta made with soft wheat flour. The Romagna subregion is renowned for pasta dishes like hats, garganelli, strozzapreti, sfoglia lorda, and tortelli alla lastra [ it] as well as cheeses such as squacquerone [ it] , Piadina snacks are also a specialty of the subregion.

Bologna and Modena are notable for pasta dishes like tortellini, lasagne, gramigna, and tagliatelle which are found also in many other parts of the region in different declinations, while Ferrara is known for cappellacci di zucca, pumpkin-filled dumplings, and Piacenza for Pisarei e faśö, wheat gnocchi with beans and lard. The celebrated balsamic vinegar is made only in the Emilian cities of Modena and Reggio Emilia, following legally binding traditional procedures. [63]

In the Emilia subregion, except Piacenza which is heavily influenced by the cuisines of Lombardy, rice is eaten to a lesser extent than the rest of northern Italy. Polenta, a maize-based side dish, is common in both Emilia and Romagna.

Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is produced in Reggio Emilia (also known for erbazzone, a kind of egg and vegetables quiche), Parma, Modena, and Bologna and is often used in cooking. Grana Padano cheese is produced in Piacenza.

Although the Adriatic coast is a major fishing area (well known for its eels and clams harvested in the Comacchio lagoon), the region is more famous for its meat products, especially pork-based, that include cold cuts such as Parma's prosciutto, culatello, and Salame Felino [ it] Piacenza's pancetta, coppa, and salami Bologna's mortadella and salame rosa Zampone Modena [ it] , cotechino, and cappello del prete [ it] and Ferrara's salama da sugo [ it] . Piacenza is also known for some dishes prepared with horse and donkey meat. Regional desserts include zuppa inglese (custard-based dessert made with sponge cake and Alchermes liqueur),panpepato (Christmas cake made with pepper, chocolate, spices, and almonds), tenerina (butter and chocolate cake) and torta degli addobbi (rice and milk cake).

Friuli-Venezia Giulia Edit

Friuli-Venezia Giulia conserved, in its cuisine, the historical links with Austria-Hungary. Udine and Pordenone, in the western part of Friuli, are known for their traditional San Daniele del Friuli ham, Montasio cheese, and Frico cheese dish. Other typical dishes are pitina (meatballs made of smoked meats), game, and various types of gnocchi and polenta.

The majority of the eastern regional dishes are heavily influenced by Austrian, Hungarian, Slovene and Croatian cuisines: typical dishes include Istrian stew (soup of beans, sauerkraut, potatoes, bacon, and spare ribs), Vienna sausages, goulash, ćevapi, apple strudel, gugelhupf. Pork can be spicy and is often prepared over an open hearth called a fogolar. Collio Goriziano, Friuli Isonzo, Colli Orientali del Friuli, and Ramandolo are well-known denominazione di origine controllata regional wines.

But the seafood from the Adriatic is also used in this area. While the tuna fishing has declined, the anchovies from the Gulf of Trieste off Barcola (in the local dialect: "Sardoni barcolani") are a special and sought-after delicacy. [64] [65] [66]

Liguria Edit

Liguria is known for herbs and vegetables (as well as seafood) in its cuisine. Savory pies are popular, mixing greens and artichokes along with cheeses, milk curds, and eggs. Onions and olive oil are used. Because of a lack of land suitable for wheat, the Ligurians use chickpeas in farinata and polenta-like panissa. The former is served plain or topped with onions, artichokes, sausage, cheese or young anchovies. [67] Farinata is typically cooked in a wood-fired oven, similar to southern pizzas. Furthermore, fresh fish features heavily in Ligurian cuisine. Baccala, or salted cod, features prominently as a source of protein in coastal regions. It is traditionally prepared in a soup.

Hilly districts use chestnuts as a source of carbohydrates. Ligurian pastas include corzetti, typically stamped with traditional designs, from the Polcevera valley pansoti [ it] , a triangular shaped ravioli filled with vegetables piccagge, pasta ribbons made with a small amount of egg and served with artichoke sauce or pesto sauce trenette, made from whole wheat flour cut into long strips and served with pesto boiled beans and potatoes and trofie, a Ligurian gnocchi made from whole grain flour and boiled potatoes, made into a spiral shape and often tossed in pesto. [67] Many Ligurians emigrated to Argentina in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, influencing the cuisine of the country (which was otherwise dominated by meat and dairy products that the narrow Ligurian hinterland would have not allowed). Pesto, sauce made from basil and other herbs, is uniquely Ligurian, and features prominently among Ligurian pastas.

Lazio Edit

Pasta dishes based on the use of guanciale (unsmoked bacon prepared with pig's jowl or cheeks) are often found in Lazio, such as pasta alla carbonara and pasta all'amatriciana. Another pasta dish of the region is arrabbiata, with spicy tomato sauce. The regional cuisine widely use offal, resulting in dishes like the entrail-based rigatoni with pajata sauce and coda alla vaccinara. [68]

Iconic of Lazio is cheese made from ewes' milk (Pecorino Romano), porchetta (savory, fatty, and moist boneless pork roast) and Frascati white wine. The influence of the ancient Jewish community can be noticed in the Roman cuisine's traditional carciofi alla giudia. [68]

Lombardy Edit

The regional cuisine of Lombardy is heavily based upon ingredients like maize, rice, beef, pork, butter, and lard. Rice dishes are very popular in this region, often found in soups as well as risotto. The best-known version is risotto alla milanese [ it] , flavoured with saffron. Due to its characteristic yellow color, it is often called risotto giallo. The dish is sometimes served with ossobuco (cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth). [69]

Other regional specialities include cotoletta alla milanese (a fried breaded cutlet of veal similar to Wiener schnitzel, but cooked "bone-in"), cassoeula (a typically winter dish prepared with cabbage and pork), Mostarda (rich condiment made with candied fruit and a mustard flavoured syrup), Valtellina's bresaola (air-dried salted beef), pizzoccheri (a flat ribbon pasta made with 80% buckwheat flour and 20% wheat flour cooked along with greens, cubed potatoes, and layered with pieces of Valtellina Casera cheese), casoncelli (a kind of stuffed pasta, usually garnished with melted butter and sage, typical of Brescia) and tortelli di zucca [ it] (a type of ravioli with pumpkin filling, usually garnished with melted butter and sage or tomato). [70]

Regional cheeses include Grana Padano, Gorgonzola, Crescenza, Robiola, and Taleggio (the plains of central and southern Lombardy allow intensive cattle farming). Polenta is common across the region. Regional desserts include the famous panettone (soft sweet bread with raisins and candied citron and orange chunks).

Marche Edit

On the coast of Marche, fish and seafood are produced. Inland, wild and domestic pigs are used for sausages and hams. These hams are not thinly sliced, but cut into bite-sized chunks. Suckling pig, chicken, and fish are often stuffed with rosemary or fennel fronds and garlic before being roasted or placed on the spit. [71]

Ascoli, Marche's southernmost province, is well known for olive ascolane [ it] , (stoned olives stuffed with several minced meats, egg, and Parmesan, then fried). [72] Another well-known Marche product are the Maccheroncini di Campofilone [ it] , from little town of Campofilone, a kind of hand-made pasta made only of hard grain flour and eggs, cut so thin that melts in one's mouth.

Piedmont Edit

Between the Alps and the Po valley, featuring a large number of different ecosystems, the Piedmont region offers the most refined and varied cuisine of the Italian peninsula. As a point of union between traditional Italian and French cuisine, Piedmont is the Italian region with the largest number of cheeses with protected geographical status and wines under DOC. It is also the region where both the Slow Food association and the most prestigious school of Italian cooking, the University of Gastronomic Sciences, were founded. [73]

Piedmont is a region where gathering nuts, mushrooms, and cardoons, as well as hunting and fishing, are commonplace. Truffles, garlic, seasonal vegetables, cheese, and rice feature in the cuisine. Wines from the Nebbiolo grape such as Barolo and Barbaresco are produced as well as wines from the Barbera grape, fine sparkling wines, and the sweet, lightly sparkling, Moscato d'Asti. The region is also famous for its Vermouth and Ratafia production. [73]

Castelmagno is a prized cheese of the region. Piedmont is also famous for the quality of its Carrù beef (particularly bue grasso, "fat ox"), hence the tradition of eating raw meat seasoned with garlic oil, lemon, and salt carpaccio Brasato al vino, wine stew made from marinated beef and boiled beef served with various sauces. [73]

The food most typical of the Piedmont tradition are the traditional agnolotti (pasta folded over with roast beef and vegetable stuffing), paniscia (a typical dish of Novara, a kind of risotto with Arborio rice or Maratelli rice, the typical kind of Saluggia beans, onion, Barbera wine, lard, salami, season vegetables, salt and pepper), taglierini (thinner version of tagliatelle), bagna cauda (sauce of garlic, anchovies, olive oil, and butter), and bicerin (hot drink made of coffee, chocolate, and whole milk). Piedmont is one of the Italian capitals of pastry and chocolate in particular, with products like Nutella, gianduiotto, and marron glacé that are famous worldwide. [73]

Sardinia Edit

Suckling pig and wild boar are roasted on the spit or boiled in stews of beans and vegetables, thickened with bread. Herbs such as mint and myrtle are widely used in the regional cuisine. Sardinia also has many special types of bread, made dry, which keeps longer than high-moisture breads. [74]

Also baked are carasau bread civraxu [ it] , coccoi a pitzus [ it] , a highly decorative bread, and pistocu [ it] made with flour and water only, originally meant for herders, but often served at home with tomatoes, basil, oregano, garlic, and a strong cheese. Rock lobster, scampi, squid, tuna, and sardines are the predominant seafoods. [74]

Casu marzu is a very strong cheese produced in Sardinia, but is of questionable legality due to hygiene concerns. [75]

Sicily Edit

Sicily shows traces of all the cultures which established themselves on the island over the last two millennia. Although its cuisine undoubtedly has a predominantly Italian base, Sicilian food also has Spanish, Greek and Arab influences. Dionysus is said to have introduced wine to the region: a trace of historical influence from Ancient Greece. [76]

The ancient Romans introduced lavish dishes based on goose. The Byzantines favored sweet and sour flavors and the Arabs brought sugar, citrus, rice, spinach, and saffron. The Normans and Hohenstaufens had a fondness for meat dishes. The Spanish introduced items from the New World including chocolate, maize, turkey, and tomatoes. [76]

Much of the island's cuisine encourages the use of fresh vegetables such as eggplant, peppers, and tomatoes, as well as fish such as tuna, sea bream, sea bass, cuttlefish, and swordfish. In Trapani, in the extreme western corner of the island, North African influences are clear in the use of various couscous based dishes, usually combined with fish. [77] Mint is used extensively in cooking unlike the rest of Italy.

Traditional specialties from Sicily include arancini (a form of deep-fried rice croquettes), pasta alla Norma, caponata, pani ca meusa, and a host of desserts and sweets such as cannoli, granita, and cassata. [78]

Typical of Sicily is Marsala, a red, fortified wine similar to Port and largely exported. [79] [80]

Trentino-Alto Adige Edit

Before the Council of Trent in the middle of the 16th century, the region was known for the simplicity of its peasant cuisine. When the prelates of the Catholic Church established there, they brought the art of fine cooking with them. Later, also influences from Venice and the Austrian Habsburg Empire came in. [81]

The Trentino subregion produces various types of sausages, polenta, yogurt, cheese, potato cake, funnel cake, and freshwater fish. In the Südtirol (Alto Adige) subregion, due to the German-speaking majority population, strong Austrian and Slavic influences prevail. The most renowned local product is traditional speck juniper-flavored ham which, as Speck Alto Adige, is regulated by the European Union under the protected geographical indication (PGI) status. Goulash, knödel, apple strudel, kaiserschmarrn, krapfen, rösti, spätzle, and rye bread are regular dishes, along with potatoes, dumpling, homemade sauerkraut, and lard. [81] The territory of Bolzano is also reputed for its Müller-Thurgau white wines.


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